Heath Beacon

Garlic

Garlic (allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus allium. Its close loved ones include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, welsh onion, and Chinese language onion. It’s miles local to primary Asia and northeastern Iran and has long been a commonplace seasoning global, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use. It becomes known to historic Egyptians and has been used as both a food flavoring and a traditional remedy. China produces some eighty% of the world’s supply of garlic.

Etymology

Garlic derives from antique English, garlēac, which means gar (spear) and leek, as a ‘spear-shaped leek’.

Description

allium sativum is a perennial flowering plant growing from a bulb. It has a tall, erect flowering stem that grows up to at least one m (three ft). The leaf blade is flat, linear, strong, and approximately 1. 25–2. 5 cm (0. 5–1. Zero in) extensive, with an acute apex. The plant can also produce red to pink plant life from July to September inside the northern hemisphere. The bulb is odoriferous and incorporates outer layers of thin sheathing leaves surrounding an inner sheath that encloses the clove. Often the bulb carries 10 to twenty cloves that are uneven in form, except for the ones closest to the middle. If garlic is planted at the proper time and intensity, it could be grown as a long way north as Alaska. It produces hermaphrodite plants. Its miles pollinated via bees, butterflies, moths, and other insects. Beginning and primary types

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identification of the wild progenitor of not unusual garlic is tough because of the sterility of its many cultivars, which limits the capability to move test with wild loved ones. Genetically and morphologically, garlic is maximum similar to the wild species allium longicuspis, which grows in relevant and southwestern Asia. But, due to the fact allium longicuspis is also more often than not sterile, it is doubtful that it is the ancestor of allium sativum. Different applicants which have been advised include allium tuncelianum, allium macrochaetum, and allium truncatum, all of which might be local to the center east. Allium sativum grows within the wild in regions where it has emerged as naturalized. The “wild garlic”, “crow garlic”, and “subject garlic” of Britain are participants of the species allium ursinum, allium vineale, and allium oleraceum, respectively. In North the USA, allium vineale (known as “wild garlic” or “crow garlic”) and allium canadense (referred to as “meadow garlic”, “wild garlic”, or “wild onion”) are common weeds in fields. So-called elephant garlic is actually a wild leek (allium ampeloprasum), and now not a true garlic. Unmarried clove garlic (also called pearl or solo garlic) originated in the Yunnan province of china. 

Bulbs subspecies and sorts

There are subspecies of a. Sativum, ten main corporations of sorts, and masses of sorts or cultivars. A. Sativum var. Ophioscorodon (hyperlink) döll, referred to as ophioscorodon, or tough-necked garlic, consists of porcelain garlics, rocambole garlic, and pink stripe garlics. It is on occasion taken into consideration to be a separate species, allium ophioscorodon g. Don. A. Sativum var. Sativum, or gentle-necked garlic, includes artichoke garlic, silverskin garlic, and creole garlic. There are at least a hundred and twenty cultivars originating from crucial asia, making it the main center of garlic biodiversity. Cultivation

garlic, from the e book of fitness, 1898, via henry munson lyman
garlic is simple to grow and may be grown year-spherical in mild climates. Whilst sexual propagation of garlic is possible, nearly all of the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, by way of planting individual cloves inside the floor. In colder climates, cloves are exceptional planted about six weeks before the soil freezes. The aim is to have the bulbs produce handiest roots and no shoots above the ground. Harvest is in past due spring or early summer time. Garlic plants can be grown intently collectively, leaving enough space for the bulbs to mature, and are effortlessly grown in boxes of enough intensity. Garlic does nicely in free, dry, properly-drained soils in sunny locations, and is hardy at some point of USDA climate zones four–9. When deciding on garlic for planting, it is crucial to pick out big bulbs from which to separate cloves. Huge cloves, together with proper spacing within the planting mattress, will also boom bulb size. Garlic vegetation prefers to grow in soil with an excessive organic cloth content material, however, is capable of growing in a huge variety of soil situations and ph levels. There are special types or subspecies of garlic, most extensively hard neck garlic and softneck garlic. The latitude in which the garlic is grown influences the selection of kind, as garlic may be day-length touchy. Hardneck garlic is usually grown in cooler climates and produces relatively huge cloves, whereas softneck garlic is normally grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly-packed cloves. Garlic scapes are removed to focus all the garlic’s electricity into bulb increase. The scapes can be eaten uncooked or cooked. Illnesses
garlic vegetation are usually hardy and not tormented by many pests or sicknesses. Garlic plant life is stated to repel rabbits and moles. The California Department of meals and agriculture (cdfa) conducts a certification program to assure freedom from nematode and white rot ailment caused by stromatinia cepivora, pathogens which could each break a crop as well as remain within the soil indefinitely, once delivered. Garlic may also be afflicted by crimson root, a normally non-deadly disorder that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red; or leek rust. The larvae of the leek moth attack garlic via mining into the leaves or bulbs. Production
essential article: garlic production in china
garlic manufacturing, 2018
country production
(hundreds of thousands of tonnes)
china 22. Three
india 1. 7
bangladesh 0. 5
egypt 0. Three
spain 0. 3
world 28. 5
may additionally consist of authentic, semi-official or envisioned facts
source: un meals and agriculture employer
in 2018, world production of garlic turned into 28. Five million tonnes, with china by myself accounting for 78% of the whole. Residences alliin, a sulfur-containing compound found in garlic. Clean or crushed garlic yields the sulfur-containing compounds allicin, ajoene, diallyl polysulfides, vinyldithiins, and s-allyl cysteine; in addition to enzymes, saponins, flavonoids, and Maillard reaction products, which are not sulfur-containing compounds. The phytochemicals chargeable for the sharp taste of garlic are produced while the plant’s cells are broken. Whilst a cell is damaged with the aid of slicing, chewing, or crushing, enzymes saved in mobile vacuoles cause the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds saved in the cellular fluids (cytosol). The resultant compounds are accountable for the pointy or warm taste and strong scent of garlic. A number of the compounds are volatile and maintain to react through the years. For most of the participants of the onion family, garlic has by using a long way the highest concentrations of initial response merchandise, making garlic a whole lot stronger than onion, shallot, or leeks. Although many human beings experience the taste of garlic, those compounds are believed to have evolved as a protection mechanism, deterring animals consisting of birds, bugs, and worms from eating the plant. Due to this, human beings for the duration of history have used garlic to hold away pests together with mosquitoes and slugs.

A massive wide variety of sulfur compounds make a contribution to the scent and taste of garlic. Allicin has been discovered to be the compound maximum liable for the “hot” sensation of raw garlic. This chemical opens thermo-transient receptor potential channels which can be responsible for the burning sense of warmth in foods. The method of cooking garlic eliminates allicin, thus mellowing its spiciness. Allicin, together with its decomposition merchandise diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, are important participants to the feature smell of garlic, with other allicin-derived compounds, consisting of vinyldithiins and ajoene. Because of its robust odor, garlic is from time to time called the “stinking rose”. While eaten in quantity, garlic may be strongly obvious within the diner’s sweat and garlic breath day after today. This is due to the fact garlic’s sturdy-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized, forming allyl methyl sulfide. Allyl methyl sulfide (ams) can not be digested and is exceeded into the blood. It is carried to the lungs and the pores and skin, in which it’s miles excreted. Considering digestion takes numerous hours, and the release of ams numerous hours extra, the impact of consuming garlic may be present for a long time. The famous phenomenon of “garlic breath” is allegedly alleviated via ingesting clean parsley. The herb is, consequently, blanketed in lots of garlic recipes, together with pistou, persillade, and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. Due to the ams in the bloodstream, it is believed by using a few to act as a mosquito repellent, however, no clinically mentioned evidence shows it’s far truely effective. Abundant sulfur compounds in garlic also are accountable for turning garlic inexperienced or blue all through pickling and cooking. Underneath these conditions (i. E., acidity, warmth) the sulfur-containing compound alliin reacts with commonplace amino acids to make pyrroles, clusters of carbon-nitrogen earrings. Those earrings can be connected together into polypyrrole molecules. Ring systems soak up specific wavelengths of light and therefore appear colored. The 2-pyrrole molecule seems purple, the 3-pyrrole molecule looks blue, and the four-pyrrole molecule appears green (like chlorophyll, a tetrapyrrole). Like chlorophyll, the pyrrole pigments are secure to eat. Upon slicing, much like a color exchange in onion because of reactions of amino acids with sulfur compounds, garlic can turn green. Records harvesting garlic, from tacuinum sanitatis, 15th century (bibliothèque nationale de france)

Culinary
numerous cuneiform information display that garlic has been cultivated in mesopotamia for at least 4,000 years. The use of garlic in China and Egypt additionally dates lower back lots of years. Well-preserved garlic turned into determined within the tomb of Tutankhamun (c. 1325 bc). It was consumed by way of historic greek and roman infantrymen, sailors, and rural training (Virgil, eclogues ii. 11), and, consistent with Pliny the Elder (natural records xix. 32), by using the African peasantry. Garlic became located by means of the historical greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, the superstitious man). Garlic changed into uncommon in conventional English delicacies (though its miles stated to were grown in England before 1548) however has been a commonplace element in Mediterranean Europe. Translations of the c. 1300 assize of weights and measures, an English statute generally dated to the 13th century, imply a passage as coping with standardized gadgets of garlic production, sale, and taxation — the hundred of 15 ropes of 15 heads every – but the Latin version of the textual content may additionally talk to herring rather than garlic. Folks medication
in his herbal history, Pliny gave a listing of conditions in which garlic was taken into consideration useful (n. H. Xx. 23). Galen, writing in the 2d century, eulogized garlic as the “rustic’s theriac” (therapy-all) (see f. Adams’ paulus aegineta, p. 99). Avicenna, inside the canon of medicine (1025), advocated garlic for the remedy of arthritis, snake and insect bites, parasites, continual cough, and as an antibiotic.[medical citation needed] alexander neckam, a writer of the twelfth century (see wright’s version of his works, p. 473, 1863), mentioned it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in subject labor. Within the seventeenth century, thomas sydenham valued it as software in confluent smallpox, and william cullen’s materia medica of 1789 observed some dropsies cured by it alone.

Uses culinary

garlic bulbs and cloves on the market at the or tor kor market in Bangkok

a garlic bulb garlic is widely used around the sector for its smelly flavor as a seasoning or condiment. The garlic plant’s bulb is the maximum commonly used part of the plant. Except for the single clove types, garlic bulbs are normally divided into several fleshy sections known as cloves. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (raw or cooked) or for medicinal purposes. They have got a function pungent, highly spiced flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. The extraordinary aroma is specifically due to organosulfur compounds along with allicin present in clean garlic cloves and ajoene which bureaucracy when they are crushed or chopped. A similar metabolite allyl methyl sulfide is responsible for garlic breath. Different parts of the garlic plant also are safe to eat. The leaves and vegetation (bulbils) on the top (spathe) are every now and then eaten. They’re milder in flavor than the bulbs, and are most often ate up at the same time as immature and nonetheless smooth. Immature garlic is from time to time pulled, as an alternative like a scallion, and offered as “green garlic”. Whilst green garlic is allowed to develop past the “scallion” stage, but now not accepted to absolutely mature, it is able to produce a garlic “spherical”, a bulb like a boiling onion, however no longer separated into cloves like a mature bulb. Green garlic imparts a garlic flavor and aroma in food, minus the spiciness. Inexperienced garlic is frequently chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or warm pot in southeast Asia (i. E. Vietnamese, Thai, Myanmar, Lao, Cambodian, Singaporean), and Chinese language cookery, and is very abundant and lower priced. Additionally, the immature flower stalks (scapes) of the hardneck and elephant types are on occasion advertised for uses similar to asparagus in stir-fries. Inedible or hardly ever eaten components of the garlic plant consist of the “pores and skin” covering each clove and root cluster. The papery, protective layers of “skin” over various components of the plant are typically discarded throughout training for most culinary uses, although in Korea immature whole heads are now and again organized with the tender skins intact. The root cluster connected to the basal plate of the bulb is the best component now not typically considered palatable in any shape. An alternative is to reduce the pinnacle of the bulb, coat the cloves by way of dribbling olive oil (or different oil-based totally seasoning) over them, and roast them in an oven. Garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves via squeezing the (root) quit of the bulb, or in my view with the aid of squeezing one end of the clove. In Korea, heads of garlic are heated over the course of numerous weeks; the resulting product, referred to as black garlic, is nice and syrupy and is exported to America, UK, and Australia. Garlic may be implemented in unique forms of bread, typically in a medium of butter or oil, to create a selection of conventional dishes, together with garlic bread, garlic toast, bruschetta, crostini, and canapé. The flavor varies in-depth and aroma with exceptional cooking techniques. It’s miles often paired with onion, tomato, or ginger. Immature scapes are soft and edible. They’re additionally referred to as “garlic spears”, “stems”, or “tops”. Scapes usually have a milder taste than cloves. They’re frequently utilized in stir-frying or braised like asparagus. Garlic leaves are a famous vegetable in lots of components of Asia. The leaves are cut, cleaned, after which stir-fried with eggs, meat, or greens. Garlic powder is made from dehydrated garlic and may be used rather for sparkling garlic, although the flavor isn’t always pretty the equal. Garlic salt combines garlic powder with desk salt.

Regions garlic being overwhelmed the use of a garlic press
garlic is a fundamental component in lots of or maximum dishes of diverse areas, such as jap Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the center East, northern Africa, southern Europe, and parts of Latin the united states. Latin American seasonings, mainly, use garlic in sofrito and mofongos. Oils may be flavored with garlic cloves. Those infused oils are used to season all categories of veggies, meats, bread, and pasta. Garlic, alongside fish sauce, chopped clean chilis, lime juice, sugar, and water, is a simple critical item in dipping fish sauce, a fantastically used dipping sauce condiment utilized in Indochina. In east and southeast Asia, chili oil with garlic is a famous dipping sauce, especially for meat and seafood. Tuong ot toi Viet Nam (Vietnam chili garlic sauce) is a relatively popular condiment and dip throughout the north USA and Asia. In a few cuisines, the younger bulbs are pickled for 3 to six weeks in a combination of sugar, salt, and spices. In jap Europe, the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. Laba garlic, organized by soaking garlic in vinegar, is a type of pickled garlic served with dumplings in northern china to have fun the Chinese language new 12 months. Garlic is critical in middle jap and Arabic cooking, with its presence in many meal objects. In Levantine international locations inclusive of Jordan and Lebanon, garlic is traditionally beaten together with olive oil, and every so often salt, to create a middle eastern garlic sauce referred to as toum (تُوم; that means “garlic” in Arabic). At the same time as not completely served with meats, toum is typically paired with chicken or other meat dishes together with shawarma. Garlic is also a key issue in some hummus types, an Arabic dip composed of chickpeas, tahini, garlic, lemon juice, and salt. Lightly smoked garlic is utilized in British and another European cuisine. It’s miles particularly prized for stuffing rooster and sport, and in soups and stews. Emulsifying garlic with olive oil produces aioli. Garlic, oil, and a corpulent base produce skordalia. Blending garlic, almond, oil, and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. Tzatziki, yogurt mixed with garlic and salt, is a common sauce in jap Mediterranean cuisines.

Storage

String of garlic
domestically, garlic is saved warm [above 18 °c (64 °f)] and dry to preserve it dormant (to inhibit sprouting). It’s far traditionally hung; softneck types are frequently braided in strands called plaits or grapes. Peeled cloves may be saved in wine or vinegar within the refrigerator. Commercially, garlic is saved at 0 °c (32 °f), in a dry, low-humidity environment. Garlic will keep longer if the tops continue to be connected. Garlic is regularly stored in oil to provide flavored oil; however, the practice calls for measures to be taken to save the garlic from spoiling which may additionally encompass rancidity and increase of clostridium botulinum. Acidification with a moderate answer of vinegar minimizes bacterial growth. Refrigeration does not guarantee the safety of garlic saved in oil, requiring use inside one month to avoid bacterial spoilage. Garlic is also dried at low temperatures, to hold the enzymatic activity and bought and saved as garlic granules, and can be rehydrated to reactivate it. Saved garlic can be laid low with penicillium decay known as ”blue mold” (or ”inexperienced mold” in some locales), specifically in high humidity. Infection may additionally first appear as smooth or water-soaked spots followed via white patches (of mycelium) which flip blue or green with sporulation. As sporulation and germination are not on time at low temperature, and at -4 deg. C is inhibited completely, in refrigerated cloves one may best see the white mycelium all through early stages. Penicillium hirsutum and penicillium all are of the major species recognized in blue mold.

Medical research
cardiovascular
As of 2015, scientific research to determine the consequences of consuming garlic on hypertension observed that ingesting garlic produces best a small discount in blood stress (4 mmhg), and there’s no clear long-term impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A 2016 meta-evaluation indicated there has been no effect of garlic intake on blood ranges of lipoprotein(a), a biomarker of atherosclerosis. Due to the fact garlic might lessen platelet aggregation, humans taking anticoagulant medicine are recommended approximately consuming garlic. Most cancers
a 2016 meta-evaluation of case-manipulate and cohort research determined a moderate inverse association between garlic intake and some cancers of the top digestive tract. Another meta-analysis located decreased quotes of stomach cancer related to garlic consumption but stated confounding elements as limitations for interpreting those research. Similarly, meta-analyses found similar outcomes at the occurrence of stomach most cancers by eating allium greens inclusive of garlic. A 2014 meta-evaluation of observational epidemiological research determined that garlic intake changed into associated with a decreased risk of belly cancer in Korean people. A 2016 meta-analysis determined no impact of garlic on colorectal cancer. A 2014 meta-analysis determined garlic dietary supplements or allium greens to haven’t any impact on colorectal cancers. A 2013 meta-analysis of case-manipulate and cohort research found limited evidence for affiliation among better garlic intake and reduced threat of prostate most cancers, however, the research had been suspected as having guide bias. A 2013 meta-analysis of epidemiological studies observed garlic consumption to be related to a reduced chance of prostate most cancer. Commonplace cold
a 2014 Cochrane review found insufficient proof to decide the effects of garlic in stopping or treating the common cold. Different reviews concluded a similar absence of first-rate proof for garlic having a full-size impact at the not unusual bloodless. Other uses
the sticky juice within the bulb cloves is used as an adhesive in mending glass and porcelain. An environmentally benign garlic-derived polysulfide product is accredited for use within the European Union (below annex 1 of ninety/414) and the UK as a nematicide and insecticide, along with for use for control of cabbage root fly and red mite in rooster. Unfavorable consequences and toxicology
garlic is understood to reason bad breath (halitosis) and frame smell, defined as a stinky garlicky odor to sweat. That is due to allyl methyl sulfide (AMS). AMS is a volatile liquid that’s absorbed into the blood at some stage in the metabolism of garlic-derived sulfur compounds; from the blood, it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth, inflicting bad breath; see garlic breath) and skin, where it is exuded via pores and skin pores. Washing the skin with cleaning soap is handiest the partial and imperfect way to the odor. Studies have shown sipping milk at the same time as consuming garlic can appreciably neutralize horrific breath. Blending garlic with milk inside the mouth earlier than swallowing decreased the scent better than ingesting milk in a while. Simple water, mushrooms, and basil may additionally reduce the smell; the mix of fat and water determined in milk, however, turned into the best. The inexperienced, dry “folds” inside the middle of the garlic clove are specifically pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing sparkling garlic, produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl polysulfides, and vinyldithiins. Elderly garlic lacks allicin, however, can also have a few activities because of the presence of s-allylcysteine. Some human beings are afflicted by allergic reactions to garlic and different species of allium. Symptoms can consist of irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, respiration problems, and, in rare instances, anaphylaxis. Garlic-sensitive humans display advantageous checks to diallyl disulfide, allyl propyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allicin, all of that is present in garlic. Folks that suffer from garlic allergies are frequently sensitive to much other flora, along with onions, chives, leeks, shallots, garden lilies, ginger, and bananas. Several reports of great burns attributable to garlic being applied topically for diverse purposes, along with naturopathic makes use of and pimples remedy, suggest care have to be taken for those makes use of, usually checking out a small place of pores and skin the usage of low awareness of garlic. On the basis of several reports of such burns, together with burns to youngsters, topical use of uncooked garlic, as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities, is discouraged. Especially, topical software of uncooked garlic to young children is not advisable. The side consequences of lengthy-time period garlic supplementation are in large part unknown. Feasible aspect outcomes consist of gastrointestinal soreness, sweating, dizziness, allergic reactions, bleeding, and menstrual irregularities. A few breastfeeding mothers have found, after ingesting garlic, that their toddlers can be slow to feed, and have cited a garlic smell coming from them. If higher-than-encouraged doses of garlic are curious about anticoagulant medicinal drugs, this can result in a higher chance of bleeding. Garlic may also have interaction with warfarin, saquinavir, antihypertensives, calcium channel blockers, the quinolone own family of antibiotics inclusive of ciprofloxacin, and hypoglycemic capsules, as well as other medicines. Alliums might be toxic to cats or dogs. Nonsecular and spiritual makes use of
in folklore, garlic has seemed like a force for each precise and evil. In Europe, many cultures have used garlic for safety or white magic, perhaps as a result of its popularity in people’s medicinal drug. Principal European people ideals have taken into consideration garlic a powerful ward against demons, werewolves, and vampires. To push back vampires, garlic might be worn, hung in home windows, or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. Within the foundation fable of the ancient Korean kingdom of gojoseon, consuming nothing however 20 cloves of garlic and a package deal of Korean mugwort for a hundred days let a bear be transformed right into a female. In birthday celebration of Nowruz (Persian calendar new yr), garlic is one of the important items in a haft-sin (“seven matters beginning with ‘s'”) table, a traditional new year’s show: the call for garlic in Persian is سیر (seer), which begins with “س” (sin, reported “visible”) the perso-arabic letter similar to “s”. Garlic (allium sativum) is a species inside the onion genus, allium. Its close household consist of the onion, shallot, leek, chive, welsh onion and chinese onion. It’s miles local to crucial asia and northeastern iran and has long been a commonplace seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human intake and use. It turned into known to ancient Egyptians and has been used as each a food flavoring and a traditional medication. China produces a few eighty% of the sector’s delivery of garlic. Etymology
the phrase garlic derives from antique English, garlēac, which means gar (spear) and leek, as a ‘spear-shaped leek’. Description
allium sativum is a perennial flowering plant developing from a bulb. It has a tall, erect flowering stem that grows up to 1 m (3 ft). The leaf blade is flat, linear, stable, and approximately 1. 25–2. Five cm (0. 5–1. Zero in) wide, with an acute apex. The plant may produce pink to red flora from July to September in the northern hemisphere. The bulb is odoriferous and includes outer layers of thin sheathing leaves surrounding an internal sheath that encloses the clove. Frequently the bulb consists of 10 to twenty cloves that are asymmetric in shape, except for the ones closest to the middle. If garlic is planted at the proper time and intensity, it can be grown as far north as Alaska. It produces hermaphrodite flora. It is pollinated through bees, butterflies, moths, and different bugs. Starting place and main sorts

this section needs additional citations for verification. Please assist improve this newsletter via including citations to dependable sources. Unsourced cloth can be challenged and removed. (February 2021) (learn the way and whilst to eliminate this template message)
identity of the wild progenitor of common garlic is tough due to the sterility of its many cultivars, which limits the capability to cross-test with wild spouses and children. Genetically and morphologically, garlic is most similar to the wild species allium longicuspis, which grows in relevant and southwestern Asia. But, because allium longicuspis is likewise generally sterile, it’s far dubious that it is the ancestor of allium sativum. Other candidates that have been counseled consist of allium tuncelianum, allium macrochaetum, and allium truncatum, all of that are local to the middle east. Allium sativum grows within the wild in areas wherein it has grown to be naturalized. The “wild garlic”, “crow garlic”, and “discipline garlic” of England are members of the species allium ursinum, allium vineale, and allium oleraceum, respectively. In North US, allium vineale (called “wild garlic” or “crow garlic”) and allium canadense (referred to as “meadow garlic”, “wild garlic”, or “wild onion”) are not unusual weeds in fields. So-called elephant garlic is absolutely a wild leek (allium ampeloprasum), and now not a true garlic. Single clove garlic (additionally called pearl or solo garlic) originated inside the yunnan province of china. Bulbs
subspecies and sorts
there are subspecies of a. Sativum, ten main agencies of types, and loads of sorts or cultivars. A. Sativum var. Ophioscorodon (hyperlink) döll, called ophioscorodon, or hard-necked garlic, includes porcelain garlics, rocambole garlic, and red stripe garlics. It’s miles occasionally taken into consideration to be a separate species, allium ophioscorodon g. Don. A. Sativum var. Sativum, or soft-necked garlic, consists of artichoke garlic, silverskin garlic, and creole garlic. There are at least a hundred and twenty cultivars originating from relevant asia, making it the principle center of garlic biodiversity. Cultivation

garlic, from the book of health, 1898, via henry munson lyman
garlic is simple to develop and can be grown yr-spherical in mild climates. Even as sexual propagation of garlic is viable, nearly all the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, by planting man or woman cloves in the ground. In colder climates, cloves are satisfactorily planted approximately six weeks before the soil freezes. The purpose is to have the bulbs produce the handiest roots and no shoots above the floor. Harvest is in overdue spring or early summertime. Garlic plant life may be grown carefully collectively, leaving enough area for the bulbs to mature, and are effortlessly grown in containers of enough depth. Garlic does well in free, dry, nicely-tired soils in sunny locations, and is hardy throughout usda weather zones four–nine. While choosing garlic for planting, it’s far crucial to pick out large bulbs from which to separate cloves. Massive cloves, along with proper spacing inside the planting bed, will also increase bulb size. Garlic vegetation favor to develop in soil with an excessive natural fabric content material, however, are able to develop in a huge variety of soil conditions and ph ranges. There are unique varieties or subspecies of garlic, most substantially hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. The latitude in which the garlic is grown affects the choice of the kind, as garlic may be day-duration sensitive. Hardneck garlic is typically grown in cooler climates and produces pretty large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly-packed cloves. Garlic scapes are eliminated to consciousness all of the garlic’s electricity into bulb growth. The scapes may be eaten raw or cooked. Diseases
garlic plant life are usually hardy and no longer tormented by many pests or illnesses. Garlic flora is said to repel rabbits and moles. The California Department of food and agriculture (cdfa) conducts a certification application to guarantee freedom from nematode and white rot disease resulting from stromatinia cepivora, pathogens that can each break a crop as well as stay in the soil indefinitely, once delivered. Garlic may additionally be afflicted by purple root, a generally non-deadly sickness that stunts the roots and turns them purple or red; or leek rust. The larvae of the leek moth assault garlic by way of mining into the leaves or bulbs. Manufacturing
predominant article: garlic manufacturing in china
garlic production, 2018
US Production
(hundreds of thousands of tonnes)
china 22. Three
India 1. 7
Bangladesh zero. Five
Egypt 0. Three
Spain 0. Three
global 28. Five
may consist of legit, semi-reputable, or anticipated information
supply: un food and agriculture organization
in 2018, world manufacturing of garlic changed into 28. 5 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 78% of the entire. Homes

alliin, a sulfur-containing compound found in garlic. Fresh or beaten garlic yields the sulfur-containing compounds allicin, ajoene, diallyl polysulfides, vinyldithiins, and s-allylcysteine; as well as enzymes, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard response products, which are not sulfur-containing compounds. The phytochemicals answerable for the sharp taste of garlic are produced when the plant’s cells are damaged. While mobile is damaged by reducing, chewing, or crushing, enzymes stored in mobile vacuoles trigger the breakdown of several sulfur-containing compounds stored inside the cell fluids (cytosol). The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or warm flavor and strong scent of garlic. Some of the compounds are unstable and continue to react over the years. The various contributors of the onion own family, garlic has with the aid of far the highest concentrations of preliminary response products, making garlic a great deal stronger than onion, shallot, or leeks. Even though many human beings experience the flavor of garlic, these compounds are believed to have advanced as a protecting mechanism, deterring animals such as birds, insects, and worms from consuming the plant. Because of this, human beings at some point in history have used garlic to hold away pests including mosquitoes and slugs.[citation needed]

a massive wide variety of sulfur compounds make a contribution to the smell and flavor of garlic. Allicin has been found to be the compound maximum answerable for the “warm” sensation of raw garlic. This chemical opens thermo-transient receptor capability channels which can be responsible for the burning feeling of heat in meals. The procedure of cooking garlic gets rid of allicin, for that reason mellowing its spiciness. Allicin, at the side of its decomposition products diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, is major participants in the function odor of garlic, with other allicin-derived compounds, which include vinyldithiins and ajoene. Due to its sturdy odor, garlic is every so often known as the “stinking rose”. Whilst ate in amount, garlic may be strongly obvious inside the diner’s sweat and garlic breath the following day. This is due to the fact garlic’s strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized, forming allyl methyl sulfide. Allyl methyl sulfide (ams) can not be digested and is exceeded into the blood. It’s far carried to the lungs and the pores and skin, in which it’s miles excreted. For the reason, that digestion takes numerous hours, and the release of AMS several hours extra, the effect of eating garlic may be present for the long term. The famous phenomenon of “garlic breath” is allegedly alleviated via consuming sparkling parsley. The herb is, consequently, protected in many garlic recipes, inclusive of pistou, persillade, and the garlic butter unfold utilized in garlic bread. Because of the ams within the bloodstream, it is believed through a few to behave as a mosquito repellent, however, no clinically reported evidence indicates it is actually effective. Abundant sulfur compounds in garlic also are liable for turning garlic inexperienced or blue at some stage in pickling and cooking. Under those situations (i. E., acidity, warmth) the sulfur-containing compound allicin reacts with commonplace amino acids to make pyrroles, clusters of carbon-nitrogen earrings. This jewelry may be linked collectively into polypyrrole molecules. Ring systems soak up particular wavelengths of mild and therefore seem colored. The two-pyrrole molecule looks crimson, the three-pyrrole molecule seems blue, and the four-pyrrole molecule seems green (like chlorophyll, a tetrapyrrole). Like chlorophyll, the pyrrole pigments are secure to consume. Upon slicing, similar to a shade alternate in onion because of reactions of amino acids with sulfur compounds, garlic can turn green. History

harvesting garlic, from tacuinum sanitatis, fifteenth century (bibliothèque nationale de france)
culinary

Numerous cuneiform records show that garlic has been cultivated in Mesopotamia for at least 4,000 years. The usage of garlic in China and Egypt additionally dates back hundreds of years. Properly preserved garlic turned into found within the tomb of Tutankhamun (c. 1325 bc). It changed into consumed with the aid of historical greek and roman squaddies, sailors, and rural lessons (Virgil, eclogues ii. Eleven), and, in line with Pliny the Elder (herbal records xix. 32), by means of the African peasantry. Garlic became located via the historical greeks at the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, the superstitious man). Garlic was rare in conventional English cuisine (though it’s far said to have been grown in England earlier than 1548) but has been a not unusual aspect in Mediterranean Europe. Translations of the c. 1300 assize of weights and measures, an English statute typically dated to the thirteenth century, imply a passage as handling standardized units of garlic manufacturing, sale, and taxation — the hundred of 15 ropes of 15 heads each – however the Latin model of the text might also talk over with herring instead of garlic. Folks medicine 

In his herbal history, pliny gave a listing of conditions wherein garlic became considered useful (n. H. Xx. 23). Galen, writing within the 2nd century, eulogized garlic because the “rustic’s theriac” (remedy-all) (see f. Adams’ Paulus alginate, p. 99). Avicenna, within the canon of medication (1025), advocated garlic for the treatment of arthritis, snake and insect bites, parasites, continual cough, and as an antibiotic.[medical citation needed] alexander neck, a author of the twelfth century (see wright’s edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), discussed it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in subject hard work. In the seventeenth century, Thomas Sydenham valued it as a utility in confluent smallpox, and William Cullen’s materia medica of 1789 found a few dropsies cured by it by myself. Uses
culinary

garlic bulbs and cloves on the market on the or tor kor market in Bangkok

A garlic bulb


garlic is broadly used around the arena for its pungent taste as a seasoning or condiment. The garlic plant’s bulb is the maximum typically used part of the plant. Apart from the single clove kinds, garlic bulbs are usually divided into several fleshy sections known as cloves. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (uncooked or cooked) or for medicinal purposes. They have got a characteristic stinky, highly spiced flavor that mellows and sweetens extensively with cooking. The distinctive aroma is especially due to organosulfur compounds together with allicin found in clean garlic cloves and ajoene which forms when they may be crushed or chopped. A similar metabolite allyl methyl sulfide is chargeable for garlic breath. Other parts of the garlic plant also are fit for human consumption. The leaves and vegetation (bulbils) on the pinnacle (spathe) are sometimes eaten. They’re milder in taste than the bulbs and are most usually fed on at the same time as immature and nonetheless soft. Immature garlic is occasionally pulled, instead of like a scallion, and sold as “inexperienced garlic”. When inexperienced garlic is authorized to grow past the “scallion” degree, but now not accredited to absolutely mature, it can produce a garlic “round”, a bulb like a boiling onion, however no longer separated into cloves like a mature bulb. Green garlic imparts a garlic taste and aroma in food, minus the spiciness. Inexperienced garlic is frequently chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or warm pot in southeast Asia (i. E. Vietnamese, Thai, Myanmar, Lao, Cambodian, Singaporean), and Chinese cookery, and could be very considerable and low-priced. Moreover, the immature flower stalks (scapes) of the hardneck and elephant types are every now and then marketed for makes use of similar to asparagus in stir-fries. Inedible or rarely eaten elements of the garlic plant include the “pores and skin” covering each clove and root cluster. The papery, protecting layers of “pores and skin” over numerous parts of the plant are commonly discarded in the course of training for maximum culinary makes use of, even though in Korea immature complete heads are once in a while organized with the soft skins intact. The root cluster connected to the basal plate of the bulb is the most effective component not commonly considered palatable in any shape. An opportunity is to reduce the top of the bulb, coat the cloves by using dribbling olive oil (or different oil-primarily based seasoning) over them, and roast them in an oven. Garlic softens and may be extracted from the cloves via squeezing the (root) quit of the bulb, or personally through squeezing one end of the clove. In Korea, heads of garlic are heated over the course of numerous weeks; the resulting product, called black garlic, is nice and syrupy and is exported to the USA, UK, and Australia. Garlic can be applied to exceptional styles of bread, typically in a medium of butter or oil, to create a variety of traditional dishes, such as garlic bread, garlic toast, bruschetta, crostini, and canapé. The flavor varies in-depth and aroma with the exceptional cooking strategies. It’s miles frequently paired with onion, tomato, or ginger. Immature scapes are smooth and edible. They are also known as “garlic spears”, “stems”, or “tops”. Scapes usually have a milder taste than cloves. They’re regularly used in stir-frying or braised like asparagus. Garlic leaves are a famous vegetable in lots of parts of Asia. The leaves are reduced, cleaned, and then stir-fried with eggs, meat, or vegetables. Garlic powder is made from dehydrated garlic and may be used rather for clean garlic, even though the taste isn’t always quite identical. Garlic salt combines garlic powder with table salt. Regions

garlic being overwhelmed the usage of a garlic press
garlic is an essential thing in many or most dishes of various areas, inclusive of jap Asia, south Asia, Southeast Asia, the middle east, northern Africa, southern Europe, and components of Latin the us. Latin american seasonings, especially, use garlic in sofrito and mofongos. Oils may be flavored with garlic cloves. Those infused oils are used to season all classes of vegetables, meats, bread, and pasta. Garlic, at the side of fish sauce, chopped sparkling chilis, lime juice, sugar, and water, is a fundamental crucial item in dipping fish sauce, an exceptionally used dipping sauce condiment utilized in Indochina. In east and southeast asia, chili oil with garlic is a popular dipping sauce, specifically for meat and seafood. Tuong ot toi viet nam (Vietnam chili garlic sauce) is a relatively famous condiment and dip across North America and Asia. In some cuisines, the young bulbs are pickled for three to six weeks in a combination of sugar, salt, and spices. In eastern Europe, the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. Laba garlic, organized by soaking garlic in vinegar, is a type of pickled garlic served with dumplings in northern china to have fun the Chinese new 12 months. Garlic is critical in center Japanese and Arabic cooking, with its presence in lots of meals gadgets. In Levantine countries together with Jordan and Lebanon, garlic is historically beaten collectively with olive oil, and every now and then salt, to create a middle eastern garlic sauce known as toum (تُوم; that means “garlic” in Arabic). Even as not solely served with meats, toum is normally paired with hen or other meat dishes including shawarma. Garlic is also a key component in a few hummus types, an Arabic dip composed of chickpeas, tahini, garlic, lemon juice, and salt. Gently smoked garlic is used in British and another ECU cuisine. It’s far mainly prized for stuffing poultry and sport and in soups and stews. Emulsifying garlic with olive oil produces aioli. Garlic, oil, and a corpulent base produce skordalia. Mixing garlic, almond, oil, and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. Tzatziki, yogurt combined with garlic and salt, is a commonplace sauce in Japanese Mediterranean cuisines. Garage

String of garlic


Regionally, garlic is stored warm [above 18 °c (64 °f)] and dry to keep it dormant (to inhibit sprouting). It is historically hung; softneck types are regularly braided in strands known as plaits or grapes. Peeled cloves can be saved in wine or vinegar in the fridge. Commercially, garlic is saved at zero °c (32 °f), in a dry, low-humidity environment. Garlic will preserve longer if the tops stay connected. Garlic is frequently saved in oil to produce flavored oil; however, the exercise requires measures to be taken to save the garlic from spoiling which may encompass rancidity and boom of clostridium botulinum. Acidification with a moderate answer of vinegar minimizes bacterial growth. Refrigeration does now not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil, requiring use within one month to avoid bacterial spoilage. Garlic is likewise dried at low temperatures, to keep the enzymatic activity and bought and saved as garlic granules, and can be rehydrated to reactivate it. Stored garlic can be affected by penicillium decay known as ”blue mould” (or ”inexperienced mould” in some locales), in particular in high humidity. Contamination may first appear as smooth or water-soaked spots, observed with the aid of white patches (of mycelium) which turn blue or green with sporulation. As sporulation and germination are behind schedule at low temperature, and at -four deg. C is inhibited entirely, in refrigerated cloves one may additionally only see the white mycellium throughout the early stages. Penicillium hirsutum and penicillium all are of the most important species diagnosed in blue mildew. Medical studies

Cardiovascular


As of 2015, scientific studies to determine the consequences of eating garlic on high blood pressure determined that consuming garlic produces best a small discount in blood pressure (4 mmhg), and there is no clear lengthy-time period effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A 2016 meta-analysis indicated there was no effect of garlic intake on blood tiers of lipoprotein(a), a biomarker of atherosclerosis. Due to the fact garlic may reduce platelet aggregation, human beings taking anticoagulant medicine are suggested about consuming garlic. Most cancers
a 2016 meta-analysis of case-manipulate and cohort research found a mild inverse association among garlic consumption and a few cancers of the higher digestive tract. Every other meta-analysis determined reduced charges of belly most cancers related to garlic consumption, however mentioned confounding elements as obstacles for decoding those studies. Further meta-analyses determined similar consequences on the prevalence of stomach most cancers via consuming allium greens together with garlic. A 2014 meta-evaluation of observational epidemiological research located that garlic intake became associated with a lower threat of belly most cancers in Korean human beings. A 2016 meta-analysis determined no effect of garlic on colorectal most cancers. A 2014 meta-analysis located garlic dietary supplements or allium vegetables to have no effect on colorectal cancers. A 2013 meta-analysis of case-manipulate and cohort research observed restricted evidence for an affiliation between higher garlic intake and reduced hazard of prostate cancer, but the research was suspected as having booklet bias. A 2013 meta-analysis of epidemiological studies observed garlic intake to be related to reduced risk of prostate cancer. Common bloodless
a 2014 Cochrane review observed insufficient evidence to decide the results of garlic in stopping or treating the commonplace bloodless. Different evaluations concluded a similar absence of amazing evidence for garlic having a large impact on the commonplace cold. Different uses
the sticky juice within the bulb cloves is used as an adhesive in mending glass and porcelain. An environmentally benign garlic-derived polysulfide product is authorized for use inside the ECU union (below annex 1 of 91/414) and the uk as a nematicide and insecticide, consisting of to be used for manipulate of cabbage root fly and pink mite in chicken. Detrimental effects and toxicology


garlic is thought to purpose terrible breath (halitosis) and frame smell, defined as a pungent garlicky scent to sweat. That is due to allyl methyl sulfide (ams). Ams is a volatile liquid that’s absorbed into the blood all through the metabolism of garlic-derived sulfur compounds; from the blood, it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth, causing awful breath; see garlic breath) and pores and skin, wherein it’s miles exuded through skin pores. Washing the pores and skin with cleaning soap is the handiest partial and imperfect technique to the scent. Studies have shown sipping milk at the identical time as eating garlic can significantly neutralize horrific breath. Mixing garlic with milk within the mouth earlier than swallowing decreased the odor better than ingesting milk in a while. Simple water, mushrooms, and basil may also lessen the scent; the mixture of fats and water discovered in milk, however, turned into the handiest. The green, dry “folds” in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing sparkling garlic, produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl polysulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic lacks allicin, but may also have some hobby due to the presence of s-allylcysteine. A few people are afflicted by hypersensitive reactions to garlic and other species of allium. Signs and symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, respiratory difficulties, and, in uncommon instances, anaphylaxis. Garlic-sensitive human beings display advantageous exams to diallyl disulfide, allylpropyldisulfide, allylmercaptan, and allicin, all of which can be present in garlic. Those who suffer from garlic allergies are frequently sensitive to many other plants, consisting of onions, chives, leeks, shallots, lawn lilies, ginger, and bananas. Several reports of great burns on account of garlic being applied topically for diverse purposes, along with naturopathic uses and zits remedy, imply care need to be taken for these uses, typically trying out a small place of pores and skin the usage of a low concentration of garlic. On the basis of numerous reports of such burns, along with burns to children, topical use of raw garlic, as well as insertion of raw garlic into frame cavities, is discouraged. Particularly, topical application of uncooked garlic to younger children isn’t recommended. The side consequences of long-time period garlic supplementation are in large part unknown. Feasible facet results include gastrointestinal pain, sweating, dizziness, allergic reactions, bleeding, and menstrual irregularities. A few breastfeeding moms have discovered, after eating garlic, that their infants can be slow to feed, and have noted a garlic smell coming from them. If better-than-advocated doses of garlic are occupied with anticoagulant medicines, this will cause a higher risk of bleeding. Garlic can also interact with warfarin, saquinavir, antihypertensives, calcium channel blockers, the quinolone circle of relatives of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, and hypoglycemic capsules, in addition to different medications. Alliums are probably toxic to cats or dogs. Religious and spiritual uses


in folklore, garlic has appeared as pressure for both precise and evil. In Europe, many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic, possibly because of its popularity in folks’ remedies. Crucial EU people beliefs are taken into consideration garlic an effective ward against demons, werewolves, and vampires. To push back vampires, garlic can be worn, hung in windows, or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. In the basis delusion of the ancient Korean country of gojoseon, ingesting not anything however 20 cloves of garlic and a package of Korean mugwort for 100 days let a bear be transformed into a lady. In the party of Nowruz (Persian calendar new year), garlic is one of the critical gadgets in a haft-sin (“seven matters beginning with ‘s'”) table, a traditional new yr’s display: the name for garlic in Persian is سیر (seer), which starts offevolved with “س” (sin, reported “visible”) the person-Arabic letter corresponding to “s”.